Specialist in Cosmetic, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Dr. Carlos Alejos Mex is a very friendly doctor and does not fit your image of a stereotypical surgeon. He is great for people who aren't exactly sure what they want, as he listens well and recommends accordingly. We love him for his human warmth and always present humor.
The treatments and procedures are performed at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, two of the leading plastic surgery center in Cancun, Mexico.
Follicle ImplantsRead more >
Remove fat without liposuction
Reduction of facial wrinkles
Used as a lip filler
Cosmetic is botox, fillers and augmentation. Mostly treatments with local anesthesia.
Plastic is tommy tuck, breast lift and augmentation, liposuction, nose, eyes, face and neck. Real surgery.
Reconstructive is all above, but done to help accident victims.
Doctor Alejos does all three.
Why Cancun Mexico?
Cancun Mexico is the perfect place for a wellness tourism trip: a country of peace, tranquility, with exceptional ecotourism destinations, with warm-hearted service oriented people, and all of these under the strictest quality controls.
Cancun has become one of the great destinations for Medical Tourism in the Americas. Why?
Well, we have excellent hospitals and clinics as well as some of the best Board Certified doctors in Latin America. To make it even more attractive, we offer prices on most procedures that are up to 70% lower than in the United States, Canada and Europe.
Why treatment in Mexico?
Undoubted advantages for patients:
Quality medical treatments compared to a procedure performed abroad, saving time and at affordable prices.
Why Doc Alejos?
Doctor Alejos is an excellent, top surgeon in Cancun with with over 20 years of experience. He speaks fluent english and is a patient, warm and very intelligent person. You are in good hands in paradise.
Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center are dedicated to beauty and to improve your self-image, providing a full range of body, breast, and facial plastic surgeries to patients from all over the country as well as across the border, seeking rejuvenation of their face, body, and skin. Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center have the most modern and advanced infrastructure supported by the Amerimed & Med Cal hospital in their respective headquarters.
Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery.
Dr. Alejos Mex is a surgeon who has provided personal care to all patients, specializing in surgery (breast augmentation and buttocks by implants, surgery, body contouring through liposuction and tummy tucks, eyelid surgeries and facial by correction rhytidectomies as well as rhinoplasty.
Dr. Alejos Mex is certified by the Mexican Council of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, and member of the Mexican Association of Aesthetic and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
GENERAL HOSPITAL SSA. Cancún. Q. Roo: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon surrogate.
REGIONAL HOSPITAL Cancun Q. # 3 IMSS Roo. Job type: Specialist in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
HOSPITAL AMAT. Cancún. Q. Roo: Cosmetic Surgery Care and Emergency (trauma facial pits. Nose, orbit, jaw, etc) tendon reconstructions, vascular and peripheral nerve with microsurgical techniques. Hair Transplantation.
Medical degree from the Autonomous University of Yucatan.
ADVANCED Intensive English course at the Marin Community College in San Francisco California USA Graduate General Surgery Hospital Juarez of Mexico from the SSA.
Graduate in Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic by National Medical Center "20 de Noviembre" ISSSTE.
The Mexican Association of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery. Pre-Congress Course.
"Botox Advanced Course Workshop" in the city of Monterrey N.L. Pre-Congress Course.
"BILL orbit." "XXXV National Congress of the Mexican Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic."
"V International Course CRANIOFACIAL AO Osteosynthesis" in the city of Mexico.
Mexico D.F. "Constancia National" Congress of the Mexican Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic.
Course record "Concepetos In New" Transcongreso chemical peels. 5 Proof.
Congress "Mexican Association of Hand Surgery". Assistance Training Course on Breast Implants INAMED ACADEMY MEXICO.
This is known to improve and tighten sagging skin and to reposition the tissues in the face, giving a smoother & rejuvenated aspect in the neck and face. The result of a facelift (Rhytidectomy) improves signs of facial aging such as, deep nasolabial, loss of muscle tone in the lower face and neck folds as well as other deep wrinkles. To be clear about expectations it is very important before you proceed into a facelift surgery. What your needs are, so we can determine the best treatment for you. You will need to know how the procedure will be carried out to achieve your desired results. Our specialist will analyze every aspect of the facelift procedure and suggest specific appearance needs.
Note: Neck Lift could be part of the process but every case is different, will depend on the muscle aponeurotic system and the quality of your skin.
Benefits of facelift surgery
Facelift surgery reverses common signs of aging, including wrinkles, sagging skin, and deep creases. It improves muscle tone and removes any excess fat and skin which may be causing a double chin or jowls. The actual procedure is fairly straightforward and complications are rare. Any scars from the procedure will be hidden in the hairline or natural creases of the face, and will fade with time. The physical improvements of the procedure often help patients feel more confident and attractive.
Potential facelift risks include hematoma, temporary nerve injury, infection, and anesthesia-related reactions. Smokers are at an increased risk of poor healing. Choosing a skilled surgeon will decrease the risk of a complication occurring during facelift surgery.
What are my expectations from my Facelift surgery?
Our specialist will proceede with a video conference appointment for you to identify your facial appearance expectations and the changes you desire, as well as the appropriate procedures in the areas of concern.
To accurate evaluate your health status; you will go true a medical examination, which will include pre- cardiac evaluation and some lab tests. Our Aesthetic Surgeons in Cancun will take a photo of your face, then they will evaluate your areas of concern and will further advise on the procedures recommended, details about your facelift surgery in Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center , including incisions and where they will be located, risks of facelift surgery, pre-operative and post-operative care, and recovery time. Following the consultation session, we will schedule your facelift surgery date and you will be provided with the necessary instructions to follow from that point of check in until you are admitted the surgery operating room at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center.
How much time will take the facelift procedure and what type of anesthesia will be used?
A facelift procedure lasts approximately 4 hours. The anesthesia in a facelift surgery is local anesthesia and light sedation typically known as “twilight” sedation. Following your facelift, you will stay one night in the hospital (Optional); you will be evaluated again the next morning or the same day depends of every case to be sure you are ready to check out. During this evaluation, you will be given recommendations on proper after care as well drugs prescriptions you may need. You will be schedule for your follow up consultation.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long will take me to recover from Facelift (Rhytidectomy) surgery?
Recovering from facelift surgery is different in every case and is a gradual process. At the end of your facelift surgery, small tubes will be placed behind each ear to allow accumulated fluid to drain. Removal of these drains generally occurs within the first days. You will also be using a compression garment for 3 to 5 days to help reduce swelling, and for showering you may easily remove it. The use of hair dryer is not allow it for the first three weeks because the sensitivity of the skin is hi and could cause a burn. During the initial facelift recovery period, it is important not to have physical activities for a couple of weeks, due preventing of inflammation. At the end of the second week, you can return to normal activity, with the consent of your specialist, and will be different in every case.
Note: We will provide with special treatments for your recovery process like (Photo-Therapy, & Ultrasound) included.
You will see your final results of your facelift procedure in about 6 months but it will take several months for the swelling to go down completely.
Recovery: Takes 4 to 7 days
Brow lift is a procedure that will, lift and also give you a reposition of the eyebrows. When the natural process of aging happens, gravity causes the eyebrows to fall or droop giving an aspect of tiredness. Some of your friends and relatives tell you that you look tired, sad, and angry or all of the above, brow lift surgery in Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center can restore the general appearance of your face.
Most ideal eyebrow for a female is arched laterally and downward to the side. Most ideal eyebrow for a male is a straight line that runs along the orbital rim. The eyebrow have the trend to age eventually and earlier than the eyelids, and a common mistake people make is that you may have excess skins on the upper eyelids so it is necessary to evaluate each individual case, since it may have fallen eyebrow, excess skin on the upper eyelids or a combination of the two of them.
What are my expectations for my Brow lift surgery in Mexico?
Before your Brow lift surgery in Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center you will have a pre- consultation videoconference with our specialist to evaluate your face status, we will have special care to the upper third of the face and determine whether the problem is related to the eyebrows, excess skin on the eyelids, or both.
Together with the specialist will discuss the recommended procedures to have the results you are looking for. In order to effectively evaluate your health status before your brow lift surgery in Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, you will have a complete medical examination to determine your health status. These examinations include lab tests and a preoperative cardiac evaluation. Our specialist plastic surgeons will take before-surgery pictures to evaluate the areas of concern and further will advise on the procedures recommended, details about your brow lift surgery in Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, including where the incisions will be located, risks on brow lift surgery, pre-operative care, as well as brow lift recovery time. Following this exam, we will schedule a surgery date and you will be given the necessary instructions to follow before you proceed with your brow lift surgery. How much time will take the Brow Lift procedure and what type of anesthesia will be used?
Usually brow lift surgery lasts approximately 2 hours ( it Could be different in every case). The type of anesthesia used in brow lift surgery is local anesthesia and light sedation typically known as “twilight” sedation. This is an outpatient procedure and does not require hospitalization. You will stay in the hospital until full effects from the sedation have worn off, which is anywhere between 2 and 4 hours. In addition, your first follow up appointment will be scheduled.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long does it take to recover from Brow Lift?
Recovering from brow lift surgery is fast, since we only make small & Mini incisions, thereby reducing the risks of alopecia (hair loss). During the first few days after your brow lift surgery, it is necessary to limit your physical activity to avoid increased inflammation. Patients recovering from brow lift surgery can typically continue with their normal activities at the end of one week with the consent of your specialist at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center .
Eyelid Lift at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, known as Blepharoplasty, it is a procedure designed to remove excess of dry skin in the upper eyelid and/or the lower eyelid transform your face figure in a younger look. Number of times, the excess of skin is also accompanied by the presence of fat pads or fat pockets. Alternatively, there are cases where there are only fat pockets and no excess skin. Eyelid Lift (Blepharoplasty) at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, our goal is to correct any or all of the above conditions in the upper and lower eyelids, including the drooping that can make people look tired or sad, ultimately giving a rejuvenated and better look in all your face.
What are the benefits of a Blepharoplasty?
Eyelid surgery dramatically improves the appearance of the eyes, and can improve the vision of patients whose lids droop into their line of sight. The surgery is fairly simple and quick, and results are natural looking and typically long-lasting. Blepharoplasty is performed also to improve vision that has been affected by folds of excess eyelid skin.
Blepharoplasty can be combined with other surgical or injectable treatments to reduce other signs of aging. For example, dermal fillers may be injected into the eye area to fill in crow's feet. Or eyelid surgery may be combined with brow lift surgery to elevate a sagging brow line.
What are the Ricks of a Blepharoplasty?
Blepharoplasty patients are at a slight risk of general surgical complications such as swelling, infection, and bleeding, though these are quite rare.
Pain or discomfort after the surgery can be mitigated with a pain medication prescription. Patients may experience minor scarring around the incision site, but a skilled surgeon will be able to hide the incisions for the surgery so the scars are less visible.
What are my expectations from my Eye lift surgery?
Before your Eye lift surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center you will have a pre-consultation video conference with our specialist to evaluate your face status, examining the upper third of your face to determine whether the problem is related to the excess skin and/or fat pockets on the upper and lower eyelids or if there are additional issues with the brow area. We will discuss the changes and the results you want to achieve with your eyelid lift surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center.
Medical check-up will be performed before you eyelid lift procedure at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, you will go under medical tests to determine your health status. These examinations will include some lab tests and a cardiac evaluation. Our specialist will take a photo before of your face and eyelids to evaluate the areas of concern. Then also they will recommend the proper procedures, also all details in your eyelid lift surgery, including incisions and where they will be located, risks of Blepharoplasty surgery, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as recovery time.
After the consultation with the specialist, we will schedule your blepharoplasty surgery at your earliest convenience and the necessary instructions will be given to you until the day of your eyelid lift surgery.
How much time will take the Eyelid Lift procedure and what type of anesthesia will be used?
Usually Eyelid lift surgery lasts approximately 2 hours. The type of anesthesia used in brow lift surgery is local anesthesia and light sedation typically known as “twilight” sedation. This is an outpatient procedure and does not require hospitalization. You will stay in the hospital until full effects from the sedation have worn off, which is anywhere between 2 and 4 hours. In addition, your first follow up appointment will be scheduled.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long does it take to recover from Eyelid Lift?
Recovering from eyelid lift surgery is rapid. In the first week of eyelid lift surgery, you are most likely to experience some eyelid edema and bruising, which is perfectly normal at this point.
During the first few days, it is strongly recommended to limit your physical activity to avoid increased inflammation. Patients can typically continue with their normal activity at the end of one week of eyelid lift surgery with the consent of your plastic surgeon. By the third week, bruising and swelling will be gone as you start to witness the rewarding and gratifying results of your eyelid lift procedure.
Areas of concern: Upper eyelids: puffiness-tired look - lower eyelids puffy (bags), dark circles -sagging upper and lower eyelid skin
Tips: A cool compress is suggested for the first 24 hours. Sutures will be removed 4 to 5 days after surgery. You can begin using make-up to conceal discoloration after one week.
Rhinoplasty or nose surgery is performed to change the bone or soft tissue defects that can ultimately correct and improve the nasal tip or bridge, reduce the size of nostrils, change the size of the nose making more balanced of the face structure. Rhinoplasty at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center is not only performed for aesthetic purposes, but it can be done for pure medical reasons: to correct functional problems and improve respiratory function.
What are my expectations from Rhinoplasty (Nose Surgery) surgery?
Having the support and help of the specialist at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, you will be able to make a decision about your rhinoplasty surgery. But first you must determine the following: the physical changes you would like to see about yourself and your expectations of rhinoplasty surgery at GPSC. You will also be asked to review and understand the information provided by the specialist, so you can get a clear perspective of your surgery procedure in GPSC. A full medical examination will be performed to determine your health status. These examinations may include some lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation; if required by your specialist.
Plastic surgeons at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center will take pictures before-surgery to evaluate the areas of concern and further advice on the treatments and techniques recommended, details about rhinoplasty surgery including incisions and location of these incisions, rhinoplasty surgery risks and side effects, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as rhinoplasty surgery recovery time. Following this discussion, we will schedule your surgery date and you will be given all the necessary information to be prepared for your rhinoplasty surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center. Nose surgery lasts approximately 2-3 hours. The anesthesia used in nose surgery is local anesthesia and light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation. Nose surgery at GPSC can be done on an outpatient basis or you may stay overnight in the hospital, depending on the advice given by your plastic surgeon at GPSC.
If rhinoplasty at GPSC is done on an outpatient basis, you will stay in the hospital until full effects from the sedation have worn off, which is anywhere between 4 and 6 hours. In addition, your first follow up appointment with GPSC specialist will be scheduled. Additional follow ups of your rhinoplasty at GPSC will continue even after you have returned home via Video conference by Skype.
What are the benefits of Rhinoplasty?
One of the biggest benefits of a nose job is that the results are tailored to the individual patient’s needs and goals. The transformation can be as subtle or dramatic as the patient desires. It will also target the specific features of the nose that the patient doesn’t like (e.g. the nostrils, tip, or bridge). Rhinoplasty can create symmetry of the face. It can also alter the shape of the nose, improving its proportion to the rest of the face. The aesthetic benefits of a nose job generally enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the patient, leading to greater social interaction with friends and professional engagement with colleagues.
Who are suitable candidates for rhinoplasty (nose surgery)?
The best candidates for rhinoplasty are people who want to improve its appearance, age should be considered, it is recommended that patients wait at least until they are at least 15 years old, and possibly even a few years in the case of men, before surgery. The reason is none other than the lack of development of the nose at an early age. There is no limit in the adult age to undergo a rhinoplasty if there is no anesthetic contraindication. The most common reasons for this cosmetic surgery is to have a nose too long, having a hump in the profile of the nose, having the tip of the nose drop, as a nose too wide or for a shift in product nose some previous blow.
Areas of Concern: Large Nose Crooked-Nose Nasal Hump-Poor Tip Definition Broken-Nose.
(Breathing Problems)-Nose Reduction
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long does it take to recover from Rhinoplasty (Nose Surgery)?
Recovering from rhinoplasty surgery Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center is gradual and will depend heavily on the post-operative care. After one week of your rhinoplasty, you may return to your routine activities. You may experience bruising and some swelling for several days and will have to wear a splint that can be removed in 7-10 days. You can resume exercise after 4 weeks from you rhinoplasty surgery date; however you must consult your specialist at GPSC first.
You also must avoid sun exposure for the first 3 weeks.
Is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures in Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, Liposuction is a plastic surgery procedure designed to remove fat from a specific body area, to re-shape and re-contour the figure.
In women, fat deposits tend to accumulate more directly from the waist down.
In men, fat deposits accumulate in particular:
What are my expectations for a Liposuction?
At your liposuction surgery consultation you will be assigned to the specialist that will evaluate your overall health, fatty deposit areas and the condition of your skin. This consultation is to determining the most appropriate treatment techniques best suited for your liposuction surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center.
In order to determine your health status to proceed liposuction surgery at GPSC, the specialist will run some medical examinations. These pre-surgery medical examinations include lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
The specialist plastic surgeon will take some pre-surgery shots to evaluate the areas of concern and will further advise on the liposuction surgery treatments recommended, details about your liposuction surgery at GPSC, including location of the incisions and risks of liposuction surgery at
GPSC, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as Liposuction surgery recovery time.
After the surgery discussion with your specialist, we will schedule a liposuction surgery date and you will be providing with the necessary instructions to be prepared for your liposuction surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center.
Liposuction procedure can last between 2-4 hours depending on the areas being treated. The type of anesthesia used in liposuction is light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation plus an epidural spinal block.
Following your liposuction surgery at GPSC, one night in the hospital will be necessary and the surgeon will conduct a follow up with you before leaving the hospital. In addition, your next plastic surgery follow up appointment will be scheduled.
What are the Benefits of a Liposuction?
Liposuction has a slimming effect on the treated areas. It can be used in multiple areas of the body, including the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, hips (“love handles”), back, and even the upper arms, neck, and chin. It’s an affordable and safe surgery, which is usually performed on an outpatient basis. Anesthesia is used for optimal comfort. One of the advantages of the tumescent and ultrasonic-assisted approaches is the reduction of post-operative swelling, bruising, and soreness.
What are the Risks of a Liposuction?
Potential risks of liposuction include asymmetry or irregularities of body contours (e.g., rippling or bagginess), changes in skin pigment, fluid retention, and infection. Tumescent liposuction can sometimes result in some drainage from the incision sites.
Who are the best candidates for liposuction?
Men and women in good physical condition with good skin elasticity are the best candidates. They are people with specific areas of fat deposits that have failed to eliminate them through diet and exercise.
In what areas is liposuction effective?
Any area where excess fat deposits can be treated, including chin, neck, cheeks, arms, thighs (inner and outer) buttocks, knees, hips and abdomen. In men, the growth of the nipples (gynecomastia) can also benefit from this treatment.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long does it take to recover from Liposuction surgery?
Abdomen is one of the parts of the body that suffers the most from weight changes, aging, physical inactivity and for women in particular during the pregnancy period. Some people can’t get results from diet and exercise alone because excess skin can only be corrected through surgery.
Tummy tuck surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center has the purpose of tightening the underlying muscles and removing excess skin from the abdomen. Abdominoplasty is not only geared toward women; abdominoplasty procedure also helps enhance the waistlines of men.
What are my expectations from my Tummy Tuck (Abdominal Lipectomy, Abdominoplasty) surgery?
We will plan tummy tuck surgery consultation; with one of the specialist at GPSC, we will choose very carefully for your appearance final expectations of the procedure. As part of tummy tucks procedure consultation, your specialist will access your skin and also your muscles to see how extend they are and separated underneath the skin.
The tummy tuck examination is designed to determine the exact plastic surgery procedure is best for your condition and whither you need any additional treatments, such as liposuction. In order to determine if you are physically fit for tummy tuck surgery at GPSC, you will need to have an extensive medical examination. Medical examination for tummy tuck surgery in Mexico usually includes some lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
The specialist will take some pre-surgery shots to evaluate the areas of concern and further advise on tummy tuck procedures recommended, details about those procedures including tummy tuck incisions and where they will be located, risks of tummy tuck surgery, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as tummy tuck recovery time.
After your abdominoplasty procedure initial consultation with the specialist, we will schedule your tummy tuck surgery date and you will be given all the necessary information and instructions to be prepared for tummy tuck surgery.
Tummy tuck surgery at GPSC usually takes 3-5 hours. The type of anesthesia used in tummy tuck surgery is light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation plus an epidural spinal block. After you tummy tuck surgery, you will stay at the hospital for one night and the specialist will conduct a follow up with you before leaving the hospital. In addition, your next follow up tummy tuck surgery appointment will be scheduled.
What are the Benefits of a Tummy Tuck?
The benefits of a tummy tuck last longer if the patient takes care of his or her body (i.e., maintains a healthy diet and exercise regimen). Women who have had tummy tucks should not plan to have more children, as pregnancy stretches the abdominal muscles, reversing the effects of a tummy tuck.
What are the Tummy Tuck Risks?
The risk of surgical or post-surgical complications is dramatically reduced when an experienced plastic surgeon performs the procedure in an accredited surgical center such as ours. However, possible tummy tuck risks include:
How a tummy tuck surgery is performed?
The surgery is performed through a lower abdominal incision, which is usually hidden. The skin is stretched down and additional skin may be removed. Suction (lipectomy) can be combined and performed in some cases on abdomen, hips or elsewhere. Your doctor may select general anesthesia, so you'll sleep through the operation.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How much time will it take to recover from Abdominoplasty surgery in Mexico?
Recovering from tummy tuck is gradual, and it is very important to start to walk as soon as possible. You will begin to feel better after the first week of tummy tuck and you can return to your normal activities two weeks after your tummy tuck procedure.
Usually, patients can use half-heeled shoes in the third week, drive after one month and begin returning to an exercise routine after 6 weeks from tummy tuck surgery.
The bust, in addition to being a strong female symbol, has played a very important psychological and cultural role throughout history.
All over the world we can see beautiful sculptures in different and exalting the feminine figure. The most perfect examples is the Venus de Milo. In reviewing this history we can understand why to this day the concept of beauty has very different characteristics depending on the region, country, and our own expectations. The bust is what gives the woman's body its delicate balance of anatomy. Today, breast augmentation in Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center is one of the popular and frequently performed surgeries.
Surgical procedure: The operation involves insertion of saline implants through an incision under the breast, around the areola (pigmented skin) surrounding the nipple, or in the armpit. The breast implant may be placed above or below the muscle. It is usually performed under general anesthesia in the operation room.
What are my expectations from my Breast Implants (Breast Augmentation) surgery?
If you are considering breast augmentation surgery, it is very important to be clear about your expectations and appearance goals, including breast shape and size.
During your breast augmentation consultation, it is also important to share your motivations and expectations of your breast augmentation surgery in Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center with your plastic surgeon, including size, change of shape or making the breasts symmetrical. One of our plastic surgeons will then exam your breasts and discuss their recommendations on how to achieve your goals before undergoing breast augmentation surgery in GPSC.
You will then need to take some medical examinations to evaluate your health status in order to determine if your physically and psychologically fit for breast augmentation surgery. These examinations include some lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
A specialist in GPSC will take some pre-surgery pictures to identify the areas of concern and will further advise on the recommended breast augmentation treatments, details about breast augmentation surgery, including incisions and their located, risks of breast augmentation, pre-operative and post-operative care at GPSC, as well as breast augmentation surgery recovery time.
Following your breast augmentation discussion with GPSC plastic surgeon, we will schedule your breast augmentation surgery date and you will be given the necessary information and instructions to be best prepared for your breast augmentation surgery at GPSC.
Breast augmentation surgery lasts approximately 2 hours. The type of anesthesia used in breast augmentation surgery in Mexico is general ANESTHESIA. After breast augmentation surgery is completed, you will BE RELEASE IN ABOUT 5 TO 6 HRS our specialist surgeons will conduct a follow up meeting with you before leaving the hospital. In addition, your next breast augmentations follow up appointment.
What are the Benefits of breast augmentation?
Who are suitable candidates for Breast Augmentation?
The Best Candidates for Breast Augmentation
These are the people looking for an improvement and not perfection in the way they look. If you are physically healthy and realistic about your expectations, you are likely to be a good candidate.
What are the types if implants use?
Types of Implants: A breast implant is a silicone shell filled with either silicone gel or a salt-water solution known as saline. Our certified board surgeons use safe, FDA-approved saline implants of various textures and shapes for beautiful contour and natural, comfortable results.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How much time will take to recover from my breast augmentation Surgery in Mexico?
Recovering from breast augmentation surgery will be gradual. Generally after the first week of your breast augmentation surgery at GPSC, you can return to your normal activities. However, the first 4 weeks of breast augmentation surgery, you will need to limit the movement of your arms and avoid strenuous physical activity as well as heavy lifting.
A special bra is worn for two weeks following the surgery. After its removal, the patient needs to massage the breasts regularly.
Patients may return to non-strenuous work after a few days. Stitches do not need to be removed, since they will dissolve on their own in ten to fourteen days. Taking a shower is permitted in three to seven days following the surgery.
Breast lift surgery (Mastopexy) at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center is designed to recover the shape, volume and tone the skin of the breasts which, over the years, have changed due to weight fluctuations, pregnancy and/or breast feeding. Breast lift surgery (Mastopexy) at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center is performed in order to reposition the tissues, with the possibility of also increasing the volume with implants, if the patient so desires.
Different techniques are perform during the breast lift surgery Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center, which all depend on your own situation. The most common treatment techniques of breast lift surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center are the Mastopexy (Lift) peri areolar, which is the removal and repositioning of breast tissue through an incision around the areola.
The second method used in breast lift surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center is a complete Pexy lift with a “VERTICAL” incision that goes from the areola down to the crease. The Pexy lift technique of breast lift surgery is used when there is a drooping of the breasts, also known as ptosis.
The Pexy lift technique of breast lift surgery used at Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center allows even distribution of the tissues, as well as giving additional support to the mammary gland itself.
If needed, both techniques can be performed in breast lift surgery in Mexico at the same time, in order to increase volume with an implant.
It is very important to discuss your breast lift surgery expectations with your assigned specialist surgeon Amerimed & Med Cal Plastic Surgery Center and ask all the questions you may have in the breast lift consultation session.
Once you have decided to have a breast lift, a certified board plastic surgeon will explain the entire procedure to you. You can tell him all your expectations and needn’t hesitate to ask any questions. A mammogram (breast X-rays) and a routine breast exam are required before the surgery.
Surgical Procedure: There are numerous surgical techniques, depending on the breast size and shape.
The most frequently performed ones are the following:
1. Vertical technique with scar around the nipple and a single vertical scar extending downwards. There are some small wrinkles for two months which disappear in time.
2. Peri-areolar technique with just one circular scar around the nipple. Initially there are some wrinkles, but they disappear under the pressure of the mammary gland. It is not suitable for large breasts.
If augmentation of breasts is to be done, an implant can be placed in front or behind the gland, but most often under muscle.
What are my expectations from My Breast Lift surgery (Mastopexy) surgery?
Breast lift surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is right for you if you feel that your breasts have undergone any of the changes outlined above and you would like to change their shape and/or increase the volume. Our specialist surgeon will evaluate your unique situation in your breast lift surgery consultation session in Mexico.
Following your breast lift surgery consultation session, you will need to undergo medical examinations to determine your health status. The medical examinations of your breast lift surgery at GPSC include some lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
Our specialist surgeon will take some pre-surgery photos to evaluate the areas of concern and will further advise on the breast lift procedures, details about breast lift surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal, including incisions made during the surgery and their locations, risks of breast lift surgery at Amerimed & Med Cal, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as breast lift recovery time.
Following your breast lift surgery discussion with one of specialist plastic surgeons, we will schedule your breast lift surgery date and you will be given the necessary information and instructions to ensure you are best prepared for your breast lift surgery.
Breast lift surgery in Mexico lasts approximately 4 hours. The type of anesthesia we use in breast lift surgery at GPSC is General Anesthesia. You will stay in the hospital in Mexico for one night and your assigned specialist plastic surgeon will conduct a follow-up meeting with you before leaving the hospital the next morning. In addition, your next breast lift follow-up appointment will be Schedule.
What are the Breast Lift Benefits?
A breast lift will reposition drooping or sagging breasts higher on the chest, as well as move the nipple higher up on the breast. The result is a perkier, shapelier bust line. A breast lift is also beneficial to patients who have recently lost a significant amount of weight and are lacking volume and shape in their breasts. Whatever your motivation for undergoing the procedure, the physical transformation provided by a breast lift is emotionally rewarding; breast lift surgery can prompt an increase in self-esteem and confidence.
What are the Breast Lift Risks?
Typically a safe and very effective procedure, breast lift surgery, as all surgical procedures do, does carry a few risks.
Risks of a breast lift include:
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How much time will take to recover from Breast Lift surgery?
Breast lift surgery recovering at Amerimed & Med Cal will be gradual. Generally after a few days from your breast lift surgery, you will feel good but it is important to limit your activities, in order to keep the surgery inflammation to a minimum, especially during the first week. By the second week of your breast lift surgery, you can return to your normal activities with caution. You may begin to exercise after 4 weeks from breast lift surgery. Regular follow up appointments will be scheduled to monitor the progress of your breast lift surgery.
Women with very large, pendulous breasts may experience a variety of medical problems, caused by the excessive breast weight, ranging from back and neck pain or skin irritation to skeletal deformities and breathing problems. If you decide to have the breast reduction surgery, Plastic Surgeon will examine your breasts and talk to you about the desired size of your breasts. He will show you where he intends to position the nipple and the areola.
The procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia and takes about 3-4 hours, during which fat and extra tissue are removed. The scars are around the areola and the underside of the breast. A supportive bra is worn for several weeks and patients can usually return to work 5-7 days after the surgery.
Gynecomastia, or excess development of breast tissue, occurs in as many as 40-60% of men. The cause is not always known, but the incidence increases with certain prescription drugs, use of steroid anabolics or alcohol. Breast reduction surgery may significantly help your appearance and self-image. The procedure is used to remove fat and glandular tissue from the breasts. The result is a flatter, firmer and more masculine-looking chest.
For patients that suffer from hair loss, hair transplantation can be a life-changing procedure. Hair transplant surgery restores naturally growing hair to areas that are thinning or bald. In addition to scalp hair restoration, hair transplants can be used in many different areas of the body, as well.
Some patients worry about differing reviews about hair transplant, but most are happy with the results. The effect of the procedure is not only aesthetic, but also emotional, granting many patients increased confidence and self-assurance.
Hair transplantation involves removing permanent hair-bearing skin from the back and/or sides of the scalp (donor area).
After that, we will be using tissue magnification and dissect the sample into micro grafts (containing 1–3 hairs).
These small grafts are then meticulously planted into the bald or thinning area of the scalp (recipient area), so we try not to injure any follicles already existing in the area and at the same exact angle as the other hairs present.
The creation of very small follicular unit grafts enables the hair surgeon to create very natural, feathered hairlines, which do not have the abrupt, "pluggy look" that was commonly seen in hair transplants.
We prefer to transplant exclusively with follicular unit grafts, while others feel that placing the multi-follicular unit grafts into the central areas of the scalp allows them to better create central density.
Depending on the degree of balding in the frontal, mid-scalp, and vertex (crown) areas, usually 2–3 procedures are performed, with the number of grafts used varying tremendously, based on the area of potential alopecia, hair transplant surgery today is remarkably well tolerated. Within 24 hours small crusts will form on each graft that are then shed in approximately 4–14 days.
The grafted hairs will often start to grow by 10–16 weeks after the procedure and will continue to grow for most, if not all, of the patients Life.
During a hair transplant procedure.
Hair transplantation surgery is considered to be "minor, out-patient surgery." Hair transplant procedures can take from 4–8 hours and are usually performed using local Anesthesia, often with some oral or medication for sedation.
The donor areas, where the grafts have been harvested, are usually closed with sutures, except in the Follicular Unit Extraction technique, which does not require surgical closure. These are usually removed in 7–14 days. Dissolvable sutures may occasionally be used in order to eliminate the need for you to return for suture removal.
The recipient sites, where the grafts are placed on top, are essentially small, superficial needle holes or slits in the skin of the scalp.
The surgeon should be willing to discuss with you the pros and cons of the various methods of both donors harvesting and transplanting the grafts.
At the end of the procedure, either a very light dressing is applied, or, in many cases, the doctor will have you stay for brief observation and then allow you to leave with no dressing whatsoever.
At the end of the procedure, surgeon usually checks the final placement of the grafts, and the doctor or an assistant then explains the postoperative instructions, which are usually supplied in written form as well.
HIFU is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.
The mechanism is similar to using a magnifying glass to focus sunlight. Focused ultrasound uses an acoustic lens to concentrate multiple intersecting beams of ultrasound on a target. Each individual beam passes through tissue with little effect but at the focal point where the beams converge, the energy can have useful thermal or mechanical effects. HIFU is typically performed with real-time imaging via ultrasound or MRI to enable treatment targeting and monitoring (including thermal tracking with MRI).
Therapeutic applications use ultrasound to deliver heat or agitation into the body; much higher energies are used than in diagnostic ultrasound. In many cases the frequencies used are different. Specific therapeutic applications of ultrasound include this non-exhaustive list:
HIFU devices have been cleared to treat subcutaneous adipose tissue for the purposes of body contouring (known colloquially, and incorrectly since there is no suction involved, as "non-invasive liposuction"). These devices are available in the US, Canada, the EU, Australia, and certain countries in Asia. HIFU is also cleared, with lower energy levels, for eyebrow lifts.
HIFU beams are precisely focused on a small region of diseased tissue to locally deposit high levels of energy. The temperature of tissue at the focus will rise to between 65° and 85 °C, destroying the diseased tissue by coagulative necrosis. Higher temperatures are usually avoided to prevent boiling of liquids inside the tissue. Each sonication (individual ultrasound energy deposition) treats a precisely defined portion of the targeted tissue. The entire therapeutic target is treated by using multiple sonications to create a volume of treated tissue, according to a protocol developed by the physician. Anesthesia is not required, but sedation is generally recommended.
Currently, there are HIFU systems approved to treat uterine fibroids, pain from bone metastases and the prostate in Asia, Canada, Europe, Israel, Latin America and the United States. There is regulatory approval to treat a range of cancers, including breast, kidney, liver, the pancreas and soft tissue sarcoma in Europe and Asia. There is a brain system approved in Europe, Korea and Russia to treat essential tremor, Parkinsonian tremor and neuropathic pain. Non-image guided HIFU devices may be marketed for cosmetic purposes (typically for body fat reduction) in some jurisdictions.
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. Botulinum toxin causes the disease botulism; however, it is also used commercially in medicine, cosmetics, and research. There are seven types of botulinum toxin, named type A–G. Type A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also used commercially and medically. Types C–G are less common; types E and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms and diseases characterized by overactive muscle.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires a boxed warning stating that when locally administered the toxin may spread from the injection site to other areas of the body, causing botulism. The warning was the result of deaths associated with its uses. Infection with the bacterium may result in a potentially fatal disease called botulism. Botulinum is the most acutely lethal toxin known, with an estimated human median lethal dose (LD50) of 1.3–2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly and 10–13 ng/kg when inhaled.
The commercial form is marketed under the brand names Botox, among others. Botox is made by Allergan.
In cosmetic applications, botulinum toxin is considered safe and effective for reduction of facial wrinkles, especially in the uppermost third of the face. Injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles under facial wrinkles causes relaxation of those muscles, resulting in the smoothing of the overlying skin. Smoothing of wrinkles is usually visible three days after treatment and is maximally visible two weeks following injection. The treated muscles gradually regain function, and generally return to their former appearance three to four months after treatment. Muscles can be treated repeatedly to maintain the smoothed appearance.
Richard Clark, a plastic surgeon from Sacramento (CA), was the first to document a cosmetic use for botulinum toxin. He treated facial asymmetry caused by unilateral facial nerve paralysis by injecting toxin into the non-paralyzed frontal muscle.
Marrying ophthalmology to dermatology, Jean and Alistair Carruthers observed that blepharospasm patients who received injections around the eyes and upper face also enjoyed diminished facial glabellar lines (“frown lines” between the eyebrows), thereby initiating the highly-popular cosmetic use of the toxin. Brin, and a group at Columbia University under Monte Keen made similar reports. In 2002, following clinical trials, the FDA approved Botox Cosmetic, botulinum A toxin to temporarily improve the appearance of moderate-to-severe glabellar lines. The FDA approved a fully in vitro assay for use in the stability and potency testing of Botox® in response to increasing public concern that LD50 testing was required for each batch sold in the market.
While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or spread from the injection site, causing paralysis of unintended muscles.
Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles. These include partial facial paralysis, muscle weakness, and trouble swallowing. Side effects are not limited to direct paralysis however, and can also include headaches, flu-like syndromes, and allergic reactions. Just as cosmetic treatments only last a number of months, paralysis side-effects can have the same durations. At least in some cases, these effects are reported to dissipate in the weeks after treatment. Bruising at the site of injection is not a side effect of the toxin but rather of the mode of administration, and is reported as preventable if the clinician applies pressure to the injection site; when it occurs, it is reported in specific cases to last 7–11 days. When injecting the masseter muscle of the jaw, loss of muscle function can result in a loss or reduction of power to chew solid foods.
Side effects from therapeutic use can be much more varied depending on the location of injection and the dose of toxin injected. In general, side effects from therapeutic use can be more serious than those that arise during cosmetic use. These can arise from paralysis of critical muscle groups and can include arrhythmia, heart attack, and in some cases seizures, respiratory arrest, and death. Additionally, side effects which are common in cosmetic use are also common in therapeutic use, including trouble swallowing, muscle weakness, allergic reactions, and flu-like syndromes.
In response to the occurrence of these side effects, in 2008 the U.S. FDA notified the public of the potential dangers of botulinum toxin as a therapeutic. Namely, they warned that the toxin can spread to areas distant from the site of injection and paralyze unintended muscle groups, especially when used for treating muscle spasticity in children treated for cerebral palsy. In 2009, the FDA announced that boxed warnings would be added to available botulinum toxin products, warning of their ability to spread from the injection site. Additionally, the FDA announced name changes to several botulinum toxin products, meant to emphasize that the products are not interchangeable and require different doses for proper use. Botox and Botox Cosmetic were renamed onabotulinumtoxinA, Myobloc was renamed rimabotulinumtoxinB, and Dysport name renamed abobotulinumtoxinA. In conjunction with this, the FDA issued a communication to health care professionals reiterating the new drug names and the approved uses for each. A similar warning was issued by Health Canada in 2009, warning that botulinum toxin products can spread to other parts of the body.
Hyaluronic acid (HA; conjugate base hyaluronate), also called hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. It is unique among glycosaminoglycans in that it is nonsulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of the Golgi apparatus, and can be very large, with its molecular weight often reaching the millions. One of the chief components of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronan contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration, and may also be involved in the progression of some malignant tumors.
The average 70 kg (154 lb) person has roughly 15 grams of hyaluronan in the body, one-third of which is turned over (degraded and synthesized) every day. Hyaluronic acid is also a component of the group A streptococcal extracellular capsule, and is believed to play a role in virulence.
Until the late 1970s, hyaluronic acid was described as a "goo" molecule, a ubiquitous carbohydrate polymer that is part of the extracellular matrix. For example, hyaluronic acid is a major component of the synovial fluid, and was found to increase the viscosity of the fluid. Along with lubricin, it is one of the fluid's main lubricating components.
Hyaluronic acid is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte). When aggrecan monomers bind to hyaluronan in the presence of HAPLN1 (Hyaluronanic acid and proteoglycan link protein 1), large, highly negatively charged aggregates form. These aggregates imbibe water and are responsible for the resilience of cartilage (its resistance to compression). The molecular weight (size) of hyaluronan in cartilage decreases with age, but the amount increases.
A lubricating role of hyaluronan in muscular connective tissues to enhance the sliding between adjacent tissue layers has been suggested. A particular type of fibroblasts, embedded in dense fascial tissues, has been proposed as being cells specialized for the biosynthesis of the hyaluronan-rich matrix. Their related activity could be involved in regulating the sliding ability between adjacent muscular connective tissues.
Hyaluronanic acid is also a major component of skin, where it is involved in tissue repair. When skin is exposed to excessive UVB rays, it becomes inflamed (sunburn) and the cells in the dermis stop producing as much hyaluronan, and increase the rate of its degradation. Hyaluronan degradation products then accumulate in the skin after UV exposure.
While it is abundant in extracellular matrices, hyaluronan also contributes to tissue hydrodynamics, movement and proliferation of cells, and participates in a number of cell surface receptor interactions, notably those including its primary receptors, CD44 and RHAMM. Upregulation of CD44 itself is widely accepted as a marker of cell activation in lymphocytes. Hyaluronan's contribution to tumor growth may be due to its interaction with CD44. Receptor CD44 participates in cell adhesion interactions required by tumor cells.
Although hyaluronan binds to receptor CD44, there is evidence hyaluronan degradation products transduce their inflammatory signal through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, or both TLR2 and TLR4 in macrophages and dendritic cells. TLR and hyaluronan play a role in innate immunity.
There are limitations including the in vivo loss of this compound limiting the duration of effect.
HA plays an important role in the normal epidermis. HA also has crucial functions in the reepithelization process due to several of its properties. It serves as an integral part of the extracellular matrix of basal keratinocytes, which are major constituents of the epidermis; its free-radical scavenging function and its role in keratinocyte proliferation and migration.
In normal skin, HA is found in relative high concentrations in the basal layer of the epidermis where proliferating keratinocytes are found. CD44 is collocated with HA in the basal layer of epidermis where additionally it has been shown to be preferentially expressed on plasma membrane facing the HA-rich matrix pouches. Maintaining the extracellular space and providing an open, as well as hydrated, structure for the passage of nutrients are the main functions of HA in epidermis. A report found HA content increases at the presence of retinoic acid (vitamin A). The proposed effects of retinoic acid against skin photo-damage and aging may be correlated, at least in part, with an increase of skin HA content, giving rise to increase of tissue hydration. It has been suggested the free-radical scavenging property of HA contributes to protection against solar radiation, supporting the role of CD44 acting as a HA receptor in the epidermis.
Epidermal HA also functions as a manipulator in the process of keratinocyte proliferation, which is essential in normal epidermal function, as well as during reepithelization in tissue repair. In the wound healing process, HA is expressed in the wound margin, in the connective tissue matrix, and collocating with CD44 expression in migrating keratinocytes. Kaya et al. found suppression of CD44 expression by an epidermis-specific antisense transgene resulted in animals with defective HA accumulation in the superficial dermis, accompanied by distinct morphologic alterations of basal keratinocytes and defective keratinocyte proliferation in response to mitogen and growth factors. Decrease in skin elasticity, impaired local inflammatory response, and impaired tissue repair were also observed. Their observations are strongly supportive of the important roles HA and CD44 have in skin physiology and tissue repair.
Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. It has not been proven, however, to generate significant benefit and has potentially severe adverse effects.
Dry, scaly skin such as that caused by atopic dermatitis may be treated with skin lotion containing sodium hyaluronate as its active ingredient.
Hyaluronic acid has been used in various formulations to create artificial tears to treat dry eye.
Hyaluronic acid is a common ingredient in skin-care products. Hyaluronic acid is used as a dermal filler in cosmetic surgery. It is typically injected using either a classic sharp hypodermic needle or a cannula. Complications include the severing of nerves and vessels, pain and bruising. In some cases hyaluronic acid fillers result in a granulomatous foreign body reaction.
In medicine, diathermy [di´ah-ther″me] is electrically induced heat or the use of high-frequency electromagnetic currents as a form of physical or occupational therapy and in surgical procedures. The field was pioneered in 1907 by German physician Karl Franz Nagelschmidt, who coined the term diathermy from the Greek words dia and θέρμη therma, literally meaning "heating through" (adj., diather´mal, diather´mic).
Diathermy is commonly used for muscle relaxation, and as a method of heating tissue electromagnetically or ultrasonically for therapeutic purposes in medicine. It is used in physical therapy and occupational therapy to deliver moderate heat directly to pathologic lesions in the deeper tissues of the body.
Diathermy is produced by three techniques: ultrasound (ultrasonic diathermy), short-wave radio frequencies in the range 1–100 MHz (shortwave diathermy) or microwaves typically in the 915 MHz or 2.45 GHz bands (microwave diathermy), the methods differing mainly in their penetration capability. It exerts physical effects and elicits a spectrum of physiological responses.
The same techniques are also used to create higher tissue temperatures to destroy neoplasms (cancer and tumors), warts, and infected tissues; this is called hyperthermia treatment. In surgery diathermy is used to cauterize blood vessels to prevent excessive bleeding. The technique is particularly valuable in neurosurgery and surgery of the eye.
Serbian American engineer Nikola Tesla first noted around 1891 the ability of high-frequency currents to produce heat in the body and suggested its use in medicine.
At about the same time French physician and biophysicist Jacques Arsene d'Arsonval performed the first systematic studies of the effect of alternating current on the body, and discovered that frequencies above 10 kHz did not cause the physiological reaction of electric shock, but warming. He also developed the three methods that have been used to apply high-frequency current to the body: contact electrodes, capacitive plates, and inductive coils. By 1900 application of high-frequency current to the body was used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions in the quack medical field of electrotherapy. In 1899 Austrian chemist von Zaynek determined the rate of heat production in tissue as a function of frequency and current density, and first proposed using high-frequency currents for deep heating therapy. In 1908 German physician Karl Franz Nagelschmidt coined the term diathermy, and performed the first extensive experiments on patients. Nagelschmidt is considered the founder of the field. He wrote the first textbook on diathermy in 1913, which revolutionized the field.
The three forms of diathermy employed by physical therapists are ultrasound, short wave and microwave. The application of moderate heat by diathermy increases blood flow and speeds up metabolism and the rate of ion diffusion across cellular membranes. The fibrous tissues in tendons, joint capsules, and scars are more easily stretched when subjected to heat, thus facilitating the relief of stiffness of joints and promoting relaxation of the muscles and decrease of muscle spasms.
Main article: Therapeutic ultrasound
Ultrasound diathermy employs high-frequency acoustic vibrations which, when propelled through the tissues, are converted into heat. This type of diathermy is especially useful in the delivery of heat to selected musculatures and structures because there is a difference in the sensitivity of various fibers to the acoustic vibrations; some are more absorptive and some are more reflective. For example, in subcutaneous fat, relatively little energy is converted into heat, but in muscle tissues there is a much higher rate of conversion to heat.
The therapeutic ultrasound apparatus generates a high-frequency alternating current, which is then converted into acoustic vibrations. The apparatus is moved slowly across the surface of the part being treated. Ultrasound is a very effective agent for the application of heat, but it should be used only by a therapist who is fully aware of its potential hazards and the contraindications for its use.
Short wave diathermy machines use two condenser plates that are placed on either side of the body part to be treated. Another mode of application is by induction coils that are pliable and can be molded to fit the part of the body under treatment. As the high-frequency waves travel through the body tissues between the condensers or the coils, they are converted into heat. The degree of heat and depth of penetration depend in part on the absorptive and resistance properties of the tissues that the waves encounter.
Short wave diathermy operations use the ISM band frequencies of 13.56, 27.12, and 40.68 megahertz. Most commercial machines operate at a frequency of 27.12 MHz, a wavelength of approximately 11 meters.
Short wave diathermy usually is prescribed for treatment of deep muscles and joints that are covered with a heavy soft-tissue mass, for example, the hip. In some instances short wave diathermy may be applied to localize deep inflammatory processes, as in pelvic inflammatory disease.
Microwave diathermy uses microwaves, radio waves which are higher in frequency and shorter in wavelength than the short waves above. Microwaves, which are also used in radar, have a frequency above 300 MHz and a wavelength less than one meter. Most, if not all, of the therapeutic effects of microwave therapy are related to the conversion of energy into heat and its distribution throughout the body tissues. This mode of diathermy is considered to be the easiest to use, but the microwaves have a relatively poor depth of penetration.
Microwaves cannot be used in high dosage on edematous tissue, over wet dressings, or near metallic implants in the body because of the danger of local burns. Microwaves and short waves cannot be used on or near persons with implanted electronic cardiac pacemakers.
Hyperthermia induced by microwave diathermy raises the temperature of deep tissues from 41 °C to 45 °C using electromagnetic power. The biological mechanism that regulates the relationship between the thermal dose and the healing process of soft tissues with low or high water content or with low or high blood perfusion is still under study. Microwave diathermy treatment at 434 and 915 MHz can be effective in the short-term management of musculo-skeletal injuries.
Hyperthermia is safe if the temperature is kept under 45 °C or 113 °F. The absolute temperature is, however, not sufficient to predict the damage that it may produce.
Microwave diathermy-induced hyperthermia produced short-term pain relief in established supraspinatus tendinopathy.
The physical characteristics of most of the devices used clinically to heat tissues have been proved to be inefficient to reach the necessary therapeutic heating patterns in the range of depth of the damage tissue. The preliminary studies performed with new microwave devices working at 434 MHz have demonstrated encouraging results. Nevertheless, adequately designed prospective-controlled clinical studies need to be completed to confirm the therapeutic effectiveness of hyperthermia with large number of patients, longer-term follow-up and mixed populations.
Microwave diathermy is used in the management of superficial tumours with conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Hyperthermia has been used in oncology for more than 35 years, in addition to radiotherapy, in the management of different tumours. In 1994, hyperthermia was introduced in several countries of the European Union as a modality for use in physical medicine and sports traumatology. its use has been successfully extended to physical medicine and sports traumatology in Central and Southern Europe.